Pew on Islam
Pew recently updated their report on Islam (here). While it covers a wide variety of topics, it is most useful concerning demographics and attitudes.
Pew predicts that Islam will become the world's most popular religion by the year 2100, based on its current growth rate. But it hasn't made much of a dent in the Americas (less than 1% in USA) or Europe, and China might prevent its spread. On the other hand, Christianity has hit a wall, and its future is unclear.
Surprisingly, American attitudes towards Muslims became more negative after 2002, almost a year after the 9/11 terror attack. This is especially true among Republicans. While time may heal wounds, demagoguery aggravates them. Pew also shows that Europeans have highly negative attitudes towards Muslims. Just like the Crusades.
While the article also discusses what Muslims believe, these sections are of limited value. But I don't know of a good source.